We reviewed the use of force policies of 91 of America's 100 largest city police departments* to determine whether they include meaningful protections against police violenceClick the boxes below to view details for each policy.

*Birmingham, Chesapeake, Hialeah, Jersey City, Long Beach, and Memphis police departments refused to send their use of force policies by July 15, 2016. Colorado Springs, El Paso and Sacramento police departments sent heavily redacted policies which were excluded from the analysis.


34 of the 91 police departments reviewed require officers to de-escalate situations, when possible, before using force.


                    Philadelphia Police Department Use Of Force Continuum

77 of the 91 police departments reviewed have a Force Continuum or Matrix included in their use of force policy, defining the types of force/weapons that can be used to respond to specific types of resistance.


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21 of the 91 police departments reviewed explicitly prohibit chokeholds and strangleholds (including carotid restraints) or limit these tactics to situations where deadly force is authorized.


56 of the 91 police departments reviewed require officer to give a verbal warning, when possible, before using deadly force. 


19 of the 91 police departments reviewed prohibit officers from shooting at people in moving vehicles unless the person poses a deadly threat by means other than the vehicle (for example, shooting at people from the vehicle).


31 of the 91 police departments reviewed require officers to exhaust all other reasonable alternatives before resorting to using deadly force.


30 of the 91 police departments reviewed require officers to intervene to stop another officer from using excessive force.


15 of the 91 police departments reviewed require officers to report all uses of force including threatening another civilian with a firearm.